State of the art UAVs
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Currently, the main UAVs technologies for unmanned missions are multi rotors and fixed wing, both with their advantages and disadvantages. Multirotor UAVs operate using four or more rotors and can be piloted easily with software run from a computer, mobile device or stand-alone remote-control stick and are capable of taking off and landing from a designated spot, without requiring a runway or a pressurized tube to launch them. The multi-rotor flight time capability and therefore the area of coverage is however a limitation[1].  On the other hand, fixed wing UAVs are characterised by a simpler structure and more efficient aerodynamics.  However, they require special launch equipment, cannot hover but have longer battery life and are used for high altitude long endurance (HALE) missions. Also, they are costlier to fly, and more difficult to learn to fly.  Besides, both systems show certain common drawbacks, as the use of propellers at a high rate of revolution are inherently noisy and can be harmful, as they produce an over 85 dB noise. They are also quite obtrusive and their operation in the sky is obvious to bystanders and affects wildlife environment.


[1] Comparison of a fixed-wing and multi-rotor UAV for environmental mapping applications, ResearchGate, 2017